How Does Noopept Work?

Noopept works through a series of neurotrophic factors in the brain. Neurotrophic factors are tiny messenger molecules responsible for transmitting messages in the neurons to regulate their function.
These neurotrophins are essential for maintaining ideal brain function, restoring lost nerve cells, and balancing neurotransmitter levels.
Let’s explore each of the mechanisms of action for Noopept and related racetam nootropics.

A) Noopept Stimulates NGF

NGF stands for nerve growth factor — a neurotrophic factor that helps orchestrate the reproduction, regeneration, and maintenance of nerve cells in the central nervous system.
NGF is associated with nerve cell recovery after an injury or stroke, neuroplasticity, long-term potentiation and memory.
Animal studies have shown that Noopept has the ability to increase NGF levels in the hippocampus [1].

B) Noopept Increases BDNF

BDNF stands for brain-derived neurotrophic factor — one of the primary neurotrophins in the brain [2].
Animal studies from 2008 found that Noopept increased BDNF levels in the brain after 28 days of use [1]. This study also found that not only did Noopept not result in any tolerance during the 28 day study, researchers also noted the neurotrophic effect improved over time — providing a greater rise in BDNF levels near the end of the study period.

C) Noopept Protects the Brain from Excess Glutamate

Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the brain. It’s classified as a neuro-excitatory compound — which means it increases the likelihood of a neuron firing to transmit a signal to surrounding cells.
When glutamate levels are high, electrical activity in the brain increases. Glutamate levels are highest when we’re awake and stimulated, and are notably high during states of stress and anxiety — leading to excessive and chaotic electrical activity in the brain.
In some cases, glutamate levels can rise to dangerous levels. For example, when the nerve cells are deprived of oxygen, such as after a stroke, or due to poor blood circulation in the brain, glutamate levels can rise to toxic levels.
Noopept works to regulate glutamate levels in the brain — reducing the chances of excessive buildup during states of anxiety and protect the cells from glutamate-induced nerve cell death.
Noopept regulates glutamate activity by modulating both the AMPA and NMDA receptors — both of which are tasked with regulating the way glutamate and calcium interacts with the brain.

D) Noopept Improves Acetylcholine Signalling

Acetylcholine is a key neurotransmitter in the brain associated with learning and memory. It’s one of the main neurotransmitters used to transmit signals from one region of the brain to another.
Many nootropics target acetylcholine function due to its important role in learning and memory. One of the earliest signs of Alzheimer’s disease (characterized by reduced memory function) is a reduction in acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus of the brain. One of the main theories for the underlying cause of Alzheimer’s is a buildup of an acetylcholine metabolite known as beta-amyloid — which forms plaques in the nerve cells leading to their eventual destruction.
Noopept has been shown to boost a compound called cycloprolylglycine (CPG) — which serves as a regulator for acetylcholine transmission in the synapses.
CPG also has some involvement with the AMPA and NMDA receptors, which provides a secondary mechanism of action for Noopepts ability to help regulate other neurotransmitters such as glutamate.